5. Father Le Chaize: Confessor to Louis XIV Who, With Certainty, Did Not Give the Sacred Heart Messages to King Louis XIV

Pere Francois d’Aix de la Chaise, Confessor of King Louis XIV, was born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez.  He entered the Jesuit novitiate at Roanne in 1649 after teaching the humanities and philosophy.

He became the confessor to Louis XIV in1675, succeeding the deceased Father Ferrier, and filled this influential but extremely delicate position consciencously for 34 years.

King Louis had mistresses and many illegitimate children.

King Louis XIV was the King of France who was to receive the messages of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque and consecrate the country to the Sacred Heart.  His birth had been foretold in an apparition of Our Lady (details on this web site)

Father La Chaise used all his influence to put an end to the king’s illicit relations with a Madam Montespan and finally succeeded, with the help of Madame de Maintenon, in breaking the liason.  During the king’s time of ‘mistressing’, Twice Father LeChaise found himself sick on Easter when it came time for the King’s confession. He was compassionate and kindly and patient.

He finally, after Queen Maria’s death, in 1683, advised the king’s marriage to Madame de Mainetnon, through whose influence the king and the whole court of Versailles underwent a wholesome change.

The messages of the Sacred Heart, according to Fr. Guitton, S.J. who wrote on the matter in the Revue d’Ascetique et de Mystique  (July-Sept. 1958) with near certainly were never relayed by Father de la Chaize to the King, as St. Margaret Mary had requested in her letter, which told of what God wanted for the world through France.

Whatever consecrations may have been made were done only privately and did not fulfill the required conditions.  Fr. de la Chaize’s reasons are still not clear, but he acted deliberatly, perhaps for lack of authorization from the Father General of the Society of Jesus.  The General, Fr. Thyrsus Gonzalez de Santalla, was known to be formally hostile to the devotion, for he censured and banished the saint’s director,  Father Croiset, for having written an account of the revelations.

The tradition of the French Visitation nuns holds it for certain that Louis XIV did nevertheless learn of the desires of the Sacred Heart through other sources.  One was England’s dethroned Queen Maria Beatrice, who had taken refuge with the nuns in France.  Louis XIV was already practicing the devotion as preached by St. John Eudes, to who he had allocated 2,000 pounds for Frances first chapel to be dedicated to the Sacred Heart.

Undoubtedly Father Le Chaize would have submitted St. Margaret Mary’s requests to his spiritual Director for approval, with a view to acting on them, but evidently the response was negative and he obeyed his director.

Thus, in strict justice the King must be absolved of personal blame for the consequences, which proved to be not only disastrous for France, but for the whole world.  We suffer them today.

The divine communications had been directed to Louis XIV’s person, but not to him as an individual. They were addressed to the King, who ruled the nation and represented it (France).  Had  this been the case the extraordinary means used  (the flag, the painting of the image on the standards and the arms )  would have been entirely disproportionate. These requests are given below in bold)   It was Louis as King who was addressed.  Father Bainvel, theologian of the Sacred Heart writes:

The three objects of the message:  the church, the consecration, the flag are by their very nature national, durabable and perpetual;  the triumph over the enemies of God and the Church resulting from the accomplishment of the message, is even more national, inasmuch as it involves the whole future of France and her providential Catholic mission, her vocation and her raison d’etre.

In the person of the king all his successors and the nation itself are addressed.  The entire court was to take part in the consecration.

Here are the words from the Sacred Heart:

“Inform the eldest son of My Sacred Heart that … he will secure his birth into grace and glory by the consecration he will make of himself to My adorable Heart … and through his mediation, that of the great ones of the earth.  He  (the Sacred Heart-Christ the King)  wishes to reign in his palace, to be painted on his standards and to be graven on his arms to render them victorious over all his enemies, by bringing these proud, arrogant heads under his heel and effect this triumph over all the enemies of the Church”

There were other requests:  In the Saints fifth letter, dated August 28 of the same year, she says Our Lord desired a building to be erected in which would be displayed an image of the divine Heart to which the King and his entire court would formally consecrate themselves.  (This would make it ‘national’)  The King, furthermore, chosen by our Lord as “His faithful friend” was to ensure that a special Mass in his honor would be authorized by the Holy See and a formal cultus established.  In return the King promised protection against his enemies, both visible and invisible”

It is now known that these invisible enemies were the occult forces of Freemasonry set into motion by the “merchants of light”. 

Already they had crossed the channel and were gathering strength in France. The Revolutionary plans were being made.

The Jesuit, Father Le Chaize, SJ., Louis XIV’s confessor had been chosen by God to see the execution of His designs.  “By virtue of the power I have given him over the heart of our great King”  Margaret Mary wrote.   Drawn  from account in:  Utopia Nowhere by Solange Hertz

Recalling the miracle of Our Lady’s apparition to the parents of King Louis XIV, as told previously on this site, of the  promise of a male heir to the throne given …. it is a tragic affair indeed when God’s will, made known through a human being , and approved by the Church, is not carried out to the letter.  St. Margaret Mary Alocoque is a saint.  Therefore there is Church Approval .  These happenings in France and Fatima are part of  Catholic history.7b22d476b033c4de9a7b3e6cd6f53311 2.jpgInWi

Her beautiful body is perfectly incorrupt lying above the side altar in the chapel of the apparitions at the Visitation Monastery at Paray-le-Monial


Consecrations Done but not in the form requested by Heaven

FRANCE:                                                                                                                                                  The Sacred Heart  (Christ the King)  asked for the Head of State to Consecrate, and for the image of the Sacred Heart to be engraved on the standards of the soldiers, their shields, the flag.

In June 1915 France was consecrated to the Sacred Heart by the Bishops of France               Utopia Nowhere:  Solange Hertz  p. 141

Consecration of the Human Race to the Sacred Heart of Jesus                                                     Ordered by His Holiness, Pope Pius XI Dec. 11, 1925:  Holy Hour of Reparation Prayer Book  P. 11

General Foch, Commander of 20th Corps in Nancy, France, and later Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces consecrated the armed forces of the French and their allies to the Sacred Heart on 16 July, 1918 during the time of WWI. Witnessed by the Cure of Bonbon Abbe Paul Noyer and Father Perray:  Utopia Nowhere:  Solange Hertz  p. 142

The only time a head of state has consecrated his country to the Sacred Heart was on March 25, 1874.  The Archbishop of Quito, his Grace Jose Ignatio Checa Y Barbera and President Gabriel Garcia Moreno jointly and solemnly consecrated Ecuador to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.


FATIMA  Our Lady asked that the Pope, in union with all the Bishops in the world, would consecrate Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary … on the same day … in their cathedrals if possible.

Apostolic Letter Sacred Vergente Year:  Consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary  July 7, 1952       No Bishops

13 May 1982  Pope St. John Paul II  Consecration of the Modern World to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

16 October 1983  Renewal of Consecration at end of 1983 synod of Bishops

25 March 1984  Consecration of all peoples of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in union with Bishops of the world.  EWTN listing

Russia has not been said with the exception of the 1952 Pope Pius XII consecration and then there were no Bishops involved.

To Be Continued







4. King Louis XIV Marries Queen Maria Theresa Enfanta of Austria

Maria Theresa of Spain (Sept. 10-30 July-1683) was a double first cousin to King Louis XIV. Louis XIV’s father was Louis XIII of France, who was the brother of Maria Theresa’s Mother, while her father was brother to Anne of Austria,   Louis XIV.s Mother,

The purpose of the marriage, arranged for them, was to end the long standing war between France and Spain.  Famed for her virtue and piety, she saw five of her six children die in early childhood, and is frequently viewed as an object of pity in historical accounts of her husband’s reign, since she had no choice but to tolerate his many love affairs.

A marriage by proxy between Maria Therese and the French king was held in Fuerterrabla.  Her father and the entire Spanish court accompanied the bride to the Isle of Pheasants, on the border of the two countries, near the Bidassoa river, where Louis and his court met Maria Theresa of Austria on 7 the June 1669, as she entered France.

On June 9 the marriage took place in Saint Jean de Luz at the recently rebuilt church of St. Jean the Baptist.  After the wedding Louis wanted to consummate the marriage as quickly as possible.  The new queen’s mother in law (and aunt) arranged a private consummation instead of the public one planned.618b44e478b0003e6d214a4a723031f2.jpgTraditional Joyous Entry into Paris by Louis XIV and Queen Maria Theresa on 26 August, 1660.

Louis was faithful to his wife for the first year of their marriage, commanding the Grand Marechal du Lugis that “the Queen and himself were never to be set apart, no matter how small the house in which they might be lodging.”

The first time Maria Theresa ever saw the Palace of Versailles was in October 1660.  At that time it was just a small royal residence that had been King Louis XIII’s hunting lodge not far from Paris.  Later the first building campaign (1554-1668) commenced with the Plaisirs de l’lle enchantee of 1664, a week long celebration at Versaillesheld in honour of France’s two Queens, Louis XIV’s mother and wife was held at the Plaisirs.download 5.jpgPlaisirs de l’lle enchantee is often associated with the War of Devolution, which Louis waged against Spain.  The first building campaign witnessed alterations in the chateau and gardens in order to accomadate the 600 guests invited to the celebration.

As time passed, Maria Theresa had  to tolderate her husband’s prolonged infidelity with Francoise-Athenais, Marquise de Montespan.download 9.jpg

Montespan would be reprimanded in the court if she did not show proper respect to the position of the Queen

Later the governess of Montespan’s illegitimate children by the King, Francoise d’Augigne, Marquise de Montenon came to supplant her mistress in the kings affection.  At first she resisted the kings advances and encouraged him to bestow more attention on his long neglected wife, a thoughtfulness which Maria Theresa repaid with warmth toward the new favorite.  After the queen’s death, Maintenon would become the king’s second, although officially secret wife


During the last week of July 1683, Maria  Theresa fell ill and, as her illness worsened, her husband ordered for the sacraments to be kept nearby.  She died a painful death at Versailles on July 30, 1683, at Versailles.  Upon her death, Louis XIV said:  “This is the first Chagrin that she has ever given to  me.


images 11.jpgThe Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles as seen today.


Source: Wickopedia     

 Note Bene: One of my favorite authors, Solange Hertz, has taken me on a truth ride through the land of the eldest daughter of the Church.  The history of France can be traced back to King Clovis, a Catholic King (convert), ruling a Catholic nation … the first 

Source:  Utopia Nowhere by Solange Hertz

To Be Continued

3. Louis XIV ‘The Sun King’ Rises

On September 5, 1638, at St. Germain-en-Laye the child promised to Louis XIII  and Anne of Austria was born.  Exactly nine months from the day Our Lady had promised an heir to the throne.

It was a turbulent France into  which the boy king was born.  His father, Louis XIII, died four years after his birth.  Louis was King at the age of four. His mother, Queen Consort of France now,  had been especially close to her mother who helped her develop a deep devotion to her Roman Catholic faith.  She was married to King Louis XIII as an exercise in political matchmaking.  They were teen agers.  The Queen was very lonesome and made a habit of visiting monasteries and churches.

Another boy, Philip, had been born before King Louis XIII died, and, Anne was a doting parent with both boys.  She selected one of Cardinal Richelieu’s associates to serve as her minister, Cardinal Mazarin, upon whose advice she depended greatly.

The Edict of Nantes, which defined Huguenot rights ((Protestants)) was in effect, along with the French war against Austrian Habsburgs which lasted until 1648.

It seemed inevitable that such a young king would be challenged.  In 1648, a Civil War – known as The Fronde erupted when Louis was only nine.  The Parlement, which was a law court, rebelled against the monarchy.  France was drowning in debt, and Mazarin imposed several new taxes, forced loans, and the selling of offices that affected the nobles. The people had turned against Mazarin and when he died in 1661, Louis decided to rule without a chief minister

177px-Anne_of_Austria_(Queen_mother)_with_her_two_sons_Louis_XIV_of_France_and_Philippe,_Duke_of_Orléans_(unknown_artist).jpgIn 1651 Anne ceeded power to her son. The King was fourteen years old.  She died in 1666.  King Louis XIV had a plaque placed in the sanctuary of Our Lady of Graces to honor his mother’s memory and to remind people that he was given to them by the vows Anne made.  The plaque remains to this day.  Louis XI would become the longest reigning of European monarchs – seventy two years.

Yet, King Louis didn’t listen to the message from heaven about the Sacred Heart when it was brought to him.  Tears and bloodshed were in store for France.

It seems highly likely, in 1660,  that heaven was offering graces to France, again,  knowing they would be needed in that poor strife torn land, where undercurrents of masonic thought were already forming minds and hearts in preparation for the historical conflict with Frances’ Roman Catholic Church.  The first Masonic Lodge was established in France around 1688 … La Parfaite Egalite.

Once again heaven was to visit France to remind her of God and the existence of the Supernatural and of how it links to the political scene … Whether King Louis XIV ever heard about this apparition of St. Joseph is not known.  However, the King knew about apparitions … as is proven by his placing a plaque in the sanctuary reminding that he was given to the people by this apparition of Our Lady of Graces at Cotignace.  That plaque which is still there.

St. Joseph appeared this time!  He who has so little or nothing to say in the Bible.

It was a roasting hot day in Cotignac on June 2, 1660.  Gaspard Richard was searching for fresh grass on Mount Besillon.  About 1PM he had to lie down because he was suffering from an exceptional thirst.  He noticed suddenly that a tall man was standing next to him.

Again, not many words came from the mouth of St. Joseph, but, there was great meaning:  “I am Joseph.  Lift it and you will drink” said the man, Joseph, pointing to a huge boulder.  Many men would not have been able to move it.  Gaspard listened to the man and made the attempt.  He was surprised that he was able to lift the boulder.  Under it he discovered a fresh water spring.  He looked up to thank the stranger, but the man had vanished.  But the seemingly impossible had been done in the blink of an eye by the faith of Gaspard.

The shepherd dashed to the village to tell all the people what happened.  We can’t overestimate his eagerness and excitement.  Knowing him as a humble young man, everyone believed him.  They all rushed to see the newly revealed spring and the surprisingly abundant water supply in a place where no water had ever been before.

The wonderful documentary Shrine of the Holy Family : Provence, France includes this event and tells how by July 25 “the city council mentions that the source pointed out by St. Joseph has abundant healing qualities and attracts people from all over the region who come to wash, drink and fine healing remedies.  In 1662, Father Allard of the Oratory that was built on the site, wrote:  “The waters of St. Joseph bring miracles.  Since I returned, a man whom we know from Avignon, born lame, went to the spring and came back cured, having left his crutches there”

(This documentary, once available on EWTN and Amazon is no longer available and it is not known “if ever” it will be again. From Both Web Sites

Since the beginning, the spring has never dried up.    National Catholic Register Joseph Pronechen  Blogs  March 29 2017

God is in charge.  If only we could listen.  Yes, there was to be one more apparition in France coming which promised victory to the King if he would consecrate France to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and paint the image on his standards and shields, and fly it on his flags. It was the famous one of the Sacred Heart of Jesus to St. Margaret Mary Alocoque.  No King listened to it.  King Louis XVI had written his vow down and it was found later.  Too late.

This King knew too.  He didn’t  listen. That too should ring true to Catholic ears who hear of Our Lady’s pleas at Fatima, Portugal, which are treated with contempt by some of her children in Rome.

France was murmuring with discontent.  Taxes were outrageous. There was hunger in the land.  The voices of the French people were to become thunderous.

St. Joseph had simply called the attention of the King and the people to God, Who can do anything! What a great gift from heaven!

Some listened.  136px-Portrait_équestre_d'Anne_d'Autriche.jpg   Some didn’t.  They didn’t want God in the affairs of France.  The horrors and the bloodshed were in the making!

2. King Louis XIII: Thanks Our Lady For The Promise of an Heir

As we have read, the kingdom was worried in 1638.  There was no heir apparent for the throne of France.

At the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Graces in Cotignac, not far from Louvre, on November 3, 1637, the Blessed Mother had appeared to an Augustinian monk named Brother Fiacere while he was in prayer in the monastery of the church of Notre- Dame-des-Victoire (Our Lady of Victories)

She had in her arms a child.  She was dressed in a blue robe with stars, her hair hanging on her shoulders, three crowns on her head, sitting on a chair and saying:  “My child, it is not my Son, it is the child God wants to give to France.”

King Louis XIII, in his joy, subsequently decreed:

“We declare that we are taking the very Holy and Glorious Virgin Mary as special Protectress of our land, and,  that on the feast of the Assumption we should commemorate our present declaration at High Mass.  We similarly exhort all people that have a special devotion to the Virgin on that day to implore her protection that God will be served and revered in such a holy way that we and our subjects may finally reach the happy end for which we have all been created.  Such is our wish”Assumption_Of_Mary640 2.jpg

King Louis XIII 

This declaration of King Louis XII is an example of a King exercising his authority of  ‘The Divine Right of Kings’ … in one aspect of that theory.

Pope Leo XII 1885 touches on the essence of Divine Right:

“Man’s natural instinct moves him to live in civil society for he can not, if dwelling apart, provide himself with the necessary requirements of life, nor procure the means of developing his faculties.  Hence it is Divinely ordained that he should be bon into the society and company of men, as well domestic as civil. 

Only civil society can ensure perfect self-sufficiency of life.  But since no society can hold together unless there be someone over all, impelling individuals efficaciously and harmoniously to one common purpose, a ruling authority becomes a necesssity for every civil commonwealth of men;  and this authority, no less than society itself, is natural, and therefore has God for its author.

Hence it follows that public power of itself cannot be otherwise than of God.”

Immortale Dei:  1885

To be continued





1. France: The Birth of an Heir Promised to a Worried King Louis XIII and Queen Anne of Austria by Our Lady

 King Louis XIII and Queen Anne of Austria couldn’t believe it when they heard about the aparition in Cotignac. (Approved)  They had said many prayers for a son.  God heard the prayers of the King and Queen for an heir and sent Our Lady with a message.  She promised a child.  The child to be born was to be King Louis XIV.  He was the one to whom was addressed the urgent plea of St. Margaret Mary Alocoque to consecrate France to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.  To emblazon the image on the flags of battle.  For the soldiers to wear the image in the many wars.

Had France been consecrated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus the Reign of Terror would probably not have been …. The year was 1638

The Story of One Apparition out of many to France                

“By that year, the kingdom was worried.  After 22 years of marriage, King Louis XIII and Queen Anne of Austria were without children.  The Queen continued praying fervently for an heir to the throne, but had many miscarriages. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Grace in Cotignac would soon play a big role in the answer.

On November 3, 1647, not far from the Louver, the Blessed Mother appeared to an Augustinian monk named Brother Fiacre while he was in prayer in the monastery of the church of Notre Dame des Victories.

The apparation was about the King and Queen.

The cry of a toddler had distracted him, explains an official history given by Our Lady of Victories.  It describes what happened on the first quarter hour visititation to him from Mary as recorded in the monasterys archives and countersigned by the vicar general and the priest.

He had turned his head to the side of the voice … and saw the Sacred Virgin surrounded by a beautiful and agreeable Light, with a child in her arms, dressed in a blue robe with stars, her hair hanging on her shoulders, three crowns on her head, sitting on a chair and saying:  ‘My child, do not fear, I am the Mother of God.”On this he threw himself on the ground to worship the child she held in her arms, thinking that it was Jesus Christ, but the Holy Virgin said to him:  “My child, it is not my Son, it is the child God wants to give to France.”

Then Our Lady asked for three Novenas from the Queen, and the son will be granted.  Specifically, one novena prayed at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.  Another there at Our Lady of Victories, and the last at an unknown shrine called Our Lady of Graces.

The monk was perplexed. Mary said “to spare any doubts, my child, to show you that I want the Queen to make three novenas to me, here is the same picture which is at Our Lady of Graces in Provence and the appearance of the church.

The monk and his superiors still had doubt, but in less than a week a babys cries again awakened Fiacre.  Again he sees Mary showing the child.  Fiacre believes and begins the novena for the Queen on November 8.  When the Queen is told, she too prays the novenas Our Lady requested in honor of her.  Then King Louis XIII orders Fiacre to find the sanctuary of Our Lady of Graces in Provence to pray the last novena there.

The trip to Cologne near the southeastern tip of France was trying.  When Brother Fiacre arrived, he was unsure if  he had found the right shrine.    Once he entered the chapel, he saw a painting being restored.  The very same image the Blessed Mother has shown him when she appeared November 3.  It was the chapel she requested.

Fiacre finished the Novena on December 5.  Exactly nine months later, on December5, 1638, their first child was born to King Louis XIII and Queen Anne.  They named him Louis-Dieudonne which means God -Given.

Overjoyed, the King declared a national act of thanksgiving and consecration of all of France to the “very Holy Virgin and Glorious Mary as special Protress of Our Land:

The King declared that on the feast of the Assumption each year he should commemorate “our present declaration at High Mass.  We similarly exhort all people that have a special devotion to the Virgin Mary on that day to implore her protection that God will be served  and revered in such a holy way that we and our subjects may finally reach the happy end for which we all have all been created.  Such is our wish.”

The consecration continued annually.

Louis XIII also named Our Lady of Victories in Paris and had it built in thanksgiving to the Blessed Virgin Mary.  He credited her intercession for his victory over the Hugenots (Protestants) at LaRochelle which guaranteed the stability of the region.”National Catholic Register;  ‘Mary’s Little Known Appearance in France’ March 2017

The year after Queen Anne download 10.jpgdied in 1666, her son Louis XIV, had a plaque placed in the sanctuary of Our Lady of Graces to honor his mother’s memory and as a reminder that he was given to the people by the vows Anne made.  It remains there.

Louis XIV, the son of Anne of Austria and Louis XIII, would become the longest reigning of the Bourbon Kings  … the longest reigning of European monarchs – 72 years.

It was to him that St. Margaret Mary Alocoque sent a letter requesting that France be consecrated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.


To Be Continued




Royal Monogram of Anne of Austria who prayed for a sonRoyal_Monogram_of_Anne_of_Austria,_Queen_of_France.svg.pngdownload 6.jpg

Haurietis Aquas: You shall draw water joyfully from the wellsprings of salvation

“Are you afflicted? Do your enemies persecute you? Does the remembrance of your past sins trouble you?  Do you feel your heart agitated by disquiet, by fear, or by passions? Come! Throw yourself into my arms.  Enter into My Heart.  I am the asylum and refuge of holy souls, and a place of shelter where your soul is in perfect security..” Cor Christi asylum perfugii in tentationibus and tribulationibus   (Blosi Consol of the Faithful Soul)       


“In this adorable Heart”, says St. Peter Damian, “we find all the weapons necessary for our defense, all the remedies suited to the cure of our diseases, all the most powerful aids against the assaults of our enemies, all the sweetest consolations to alleviate our sufferings, all the purest delights to fill our souls with joy.”

“The Sacred Heart of Jesus” says the devout Lanspergius, “is not only the seat of all the virtues, but it is also the fountain of graces by which these virtues are acquired and preserved.  Have a tender devotion to this loving Heart, which is so full of love and mercy.  Through it ask for all that you wish to obtain and offer of all your actions.  For this Sacred Heart is the treasury of all supernatural gifts.  It is the way by which we unite ourselves more closely with God, and by which God communicates Himself more lovingly to us.  You have in this Sacred Heart all the graces, all the virtues of which you stand in need, and you need not fear to exhaust this infinite treasure.

Have recourse to Me in all your necessities    6f8abfb8e21a33f44d91ca121d1b2699.jpg


“It is a good thing, it is a sweet thing,” cries out St. Bernard, to dwell in this Sacred Heart.  It is enough for me to call to mind Thy Sacred Heart, oh sweet Jesus, to be filled with joy.”


“My Heart is the treasury of all the graces, which I continually bestow upon you.  It is the fountain of all those interior consolations and ineffable delights with which I replenish My faithful friends.”  Jesus to St. Mechtildis













These are pictures of Paris.   That is not my headline, folks!!


If the Liberal attack continues and perseveres, our dear country is doomed.
Czech couples pictures and comments of Paris Today
It turns out that the second saying is now relevant in the literal sense: the modern capital of France is not similar to the one that is known to you .
“We went there not so long ago, just go for the weekend. We bribed the price of tickets, unusually low, but we were not in Paris for more than 10 years. We decided to refresh impressions, again inhale the French romance. The fact that the lowest price for Air France had alerted us, but nothing like this. “
“The flight was fine, then we boarded a train that took us to the center, and it was there that we experienced the first shock: not only was the Northern station all littered with debris,  there was not…

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